The Independent Subway
The Independent, or IND, was the last of the three former competing subway systems. Built by the city to be "independent" of the interests of the IRT and BMT, it contributed six major lines to what is now the unified New York Subway. This station, 190th Street on the IND 8th Avenue line, opened in 1932. Photo by David Pirmann.
History of the Independent Subway
www.nycsubway.org is proud to have a full history of the Independent Subway and today's IND Division. It covers the development of the Independent system from early planning and construction, its ambitious expansion plans, its role in the unification of the three competing systems, and recent developments in planning future subway lines.
IND Second System - 1929 Plan
The IND Second System plan included the Second Avenue subway and other new lines in Manhattan, and extensive new construction in the Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn.
The 1939 World's Fair Railroad
This overview of the 1939 World's Fair subway extension includes a discussion of single-line signal diagrams.
New Subways: Proposed Additions to Rapid Transit System... (1922)
A 1922 proposal by the Transit Commission proposed some extensions to the Dual Contracts system, including some lines that were eventually built as part of the Independent Subway.
Subway Consolidation Necessary (1927)
This report published in 1927 spoke out against the IND's plans and suggested alternatives.
Gay Midnight Crowds Rides First Trains in New Subway (1932)
The New York Times coverage of September 10, 1932, the morning after the opening of the IND Eighth Avenue subway.
Jay-Smith Street and Fulton Street Subway (1934)
A 1934 paper presented to the Municipal Engineers Society of the City of New York describes construction techniques of the IND in Brooklyn.
Concreted Track--Track Materials Specially Designed... (1929)
Electric Railway Journal, 1929.
Loading Speed A Major Factor in Design of New York Subway Cars (1931)
Electric Railway Journal, June, 1931.
Well-Planned Schedules Speed Subway Track Construction (1931)
Electric Railway Journal, July, 1931.